Os conceitos e aplicações da ergonomia estão em constante discussão no âmbito acadêmico, caracterizando um corpus de conhecimento de grande expressividade para a própria ciência ergonômica e demais áreas tecnológicas correlatas, a saber: engenharias, design, arquitetura, e outras. Entre as demandas para ampliar as análises em torno dessa disciplina apresenta-se sua evolução histórica, a qual está completa de controvérsias e discussões. De fato, há ainda uma grande dificuldade em relatar suas etapas históricas dentro do âmbito geográfico e a participação de seus precursores nessas fases. Assim, o propósito dessa coletânea foi o de reunir os estudos realizados pelos alunos da linha de pesquisa ergonomia, associados ao Laboratório de Ergonomia e Interfaces - LEI, no Programa de Pós-graduação em Design - PPGDesign, da Faculdade de Arquitetura, Artes e Comunicação da Universidade Estadual Paulista, e apresentar subsídios para ampliação da discussão e reflexão evolutiva da ergonomia. Os primeiros capítulos relatam os precursores da ergonomia, com destaque para Leonardo da Vinci e seus estudos na área da anatomia; Bélidor, Patissier e suas contribuições para a organização do trabalho; o Taylorismo e os aspectos da organização científica do trabalho, bem como a contribuição de Jules Amar nesse âmbito. Os demais capítulos abordam a origem e evolução da ergonomia na Europa, na Rússia (ex URSS), Estados Unidos da América, América Latina e Brasil, com ênfase a criação de laboratórios e associações não governamentais. De modo geral, os estudos ora apresentados preenchem lacunas ainda existentes dentro da ergonomia e procuram estabelecer um elo de ligação para a continuidade futura das pesquisas na área.
This book provides a collection of 28 writings from Scott Geller's regular column in 'Industrial Safety and Hygiene News,' from Geller's associates at Safety Performance Solutions, and from the American Society of Safety Engineers' annual conferences. Organized into seven chapters, these writings examine real-world examples of successful behavior-based safety programs. Readers will discover tips on how to measure safety performance, how to get workers to care about safety, and how to better assess and coach safety performance using specific behavior-based tools.
by MICHEL FOUCAULT Everyone knows that in France there are few logicians but many historians of science; and that in the 'philosophical establishment' - whether teaching or research oriented - they have occupied a considerable position. But do we know precisely the importance that, in the course of these past fifteen or twenty years, up to the very frontiers of the establishment, a 'work' like that of Georges Canguilhem can have had for those very people who were separ ated from, or challenged, the establishment? Yes, I know, there have been noisier theatres: psychoanalysis, Marxism, linguistics, ethnology. But let us not forget this fact which depends, as you will, on the sociology of French intellectual environments, the functioning of our university institutions or our system of cultural values: in all the political or scientific discussions of these strange sixty years past, the role of the 'philosophers' - I simply mean those who had received their university training in philosophy department- has been important: perhaps too important for the liking of certain people. And, directly or indirectly, all or almost all these philosophers have had to 'come to terms with' the teaching and books of Georges Canguilhem. From this, a paradox: this man, whose work is austere, intentionally and carefully limited to a particular domain in the history of science, which in any case does not pass for a spectacular discipline, has somehow found him self present in discussions where he himself took care never to figure.
The formation of professions
Author: Michael Burrage, Rolf Torstendahl, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences
Publisher: Sage Pubns
Many theories have been developed in Britain and Europe on the general phenomena of professionalism, but most of this research has been dominated by two individual professions--lawyers and medical doctors. This volume and its companion, Professions in Theory and History, widen the sphere of interest to include other professions, and other countries. In the present volume, the contributors show that there are different routes into professionalism, and that the success of future professionals depends heavily on their knowledge of the field, the actions of the state, and the strategic roles they play. Some contributors discuss existing theories, note the inherent limitations, and suggest new paths of development. Others present empirical findings to explore the differences in professions. The Formation of Professions and its companion are necessary resources for academics and researchers in the fields of sociology, education, and history. "A number of excellent papers, and many that will become essential reading for any social scientist in the area." --Sociology "The books have considerable virtue. They reemphasize that comparative study is essential to future work on professions and that the role of the state will loom large in that comparative study. Their theory is often refreshingly new, as authors attack problems with theorizing styles unfamiliar to American sociologists of occupations. And for those unfamiliar with continental professions, these is an enticing variety of examples." --Contemporary Sociology
Employee participation programs have many faces, many definitions, many forms--and they change all the time. Bar-Haim, taking a historical approach, dissects these plans with readable, lucid scholarship, and makes sense of the various confusing experiences others have had with them. He analyzes the shapes and dimensions these plans take, using a variety of conceptual frames from the social and management sciences; suggests practical guidelines to operationalize them, then adds a number of highly plausible scenarios for what these plans could look like in the near and perhaps distant future. Students, scholars, researchers, and human resource executives will all find this an important, useful source of action-oriented information.
Coal mining is one of China’s largest industries, and provides an excellent case study through which to consider the broader issues of China’s transition from socialism to capitalism, focussing on the shift to a market economy, the rise of rural industry and the situation of China’s working class. Coal was one of the pillars of the planned economy but, the author argues, its shift to market-based operations has been protracted and difficult, particularly in moving from the artificially low prices of the planned economy to market prescribed prices - a change that had a major impact on the industry’s financial performance. The book goes on to considers the growth of small rural coal mines as part of the Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs) programme; these small mines have brought prosperity to areas where small manufacturing enterprises are not competitive, but at the same time have been the cause of many social and environmental problems. It also examines the situation of coal miners - arguably one the most vulnerable segments of the Chinese working class - under socialism and under capitalism, paying particular attention to the issue of work safety and coal mine disasters. The book provides a comprehensive and coherent treatment of these issues from the establishment of the People’s Republic up to 2010.
Caught in the Machinery
Author: Jamie L. Bronstein
Publisher: Stanford University Press
Caught In the Machinery examines the social, legal, cultural and political history of workplace accidents and injured workers in 19th-century Britain and in the broader Anglo-American context.
Author: Billy Collins
Publisher: Random House
NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER “America’s favorite poet.”—The Wall Street Journal From the two-term Poet Laureate of the United States Billy Collins comes his first volume of new and selected poems in twelve years. Aimless Love combines fifty new poems with generous selections from his four most recent books—Nine Horses, The Trouble with Poetry, Ballistics, and Horoscopes for the Dead. Collins’s unmistakable voice, which brings together plain speech with imaginative surprise, is clearly heard on every page, reminding us how he has managed to enrich the tapestry of contemporary poetry and greatly expand its audience. His work is featured in top literary magazines such as The New Yorker, Poetry, and The Atlantic, and he sells out reading venues all across the country. Appearing regularly in The Best American Poetry series, his poems appeal to readers and live audiences far and wide and have been translated into more than a dozen languages. By turns playful, ironic, and serious, Collins’s poetry captures the nuances of everyday life while leading the reader into zones of inspired wonder. In the poet’s own words, he hopes that his poems “begin in Kansas and end in Oz.” Touching on the themes of love, loss, joy, and poetry itself, these poems showcase the best work of this “poet of plenitude, irony, and Augustan grace” (The New Yorker). Envoy Go, little book, out of this house and into the world, carriage made of paper rolling toward town bearing a single passenger beyond the reach of this jittery pen and far from the desk and the nosy gooseneck lamp. It is time to decamp, put on a jacket and venture outside, time to be regarded by other eyes, bound to be held in foreign hands. So off you go, infants of the brain, with a wave and some bits of fatherly advice: stay out as late as you like, don’t bother to call or write, and talk to as many strangers as you can. Praise for Aimless Love “[Billy Collins] is able, with precious few words, to make me cry. Or laugh out loud. He is a remarkable artist. To have such power in such an abbreviated form is deeply inspiring.”—J. J. Abrams, The New York Times Book Review “His work is poignant, straightforward, usually funny and imaginative, also nuanced and surprising. It bears repeated reading and reading aloud.”—The Plain Dealer “Collins has earned almost rock-star status. . . . He knows how to write layered, subtly witty poems that anyone can understand and appreciate—even those who don’t normally like poetry. . . . The Collins in these pages is distinctive, evocative, and knows how to make the genre fresh and relevant.”—The Christian Science Monitor “Collins’s new poems contain everything you've come to expect from a Billy Collins poem. They stand solidly on even ground, chiseled and unbreakable. Their phrasing is elegant, the humor is alive, and the speaker continues to stroll at his own pace through the plainness of American life.”—The Daily Beast “[Collins’s] poetry presents simple observations, which create a shared experience between Collins and his readers, while further revealing how he takes life’s everyday humdrum experiences and makes them vibrant.”—The Times Leader From the Hardcover edition.
Le Risque Technologique Majeur
Author: Arwen Mohun
Publisher: JHU Press
"Risk" is a capacious term used to describe the uncertainties that arise from physical, financial, political, and social activities. Practically everything we do carries some level of risk—threats to our bodies, property, and animals. How do we determine when the risk is too high? In considering this question, Arwen P. Mohun offers a thought-provoking study of danger and how people have managed it from pre-industrial and industrial America up until today. Mohun outlines a vernacular risk culture in early America, one based on ordinary experience and common sense. The rise of factories and machinery eventually led to shocking accidents, which, she explains, risk-management experts and the "gospel of safety" sought to counter. Finally, she examines the simultaneous blossoming of risk-taking as fun and the aggressive regulations that follow from the consumer-products-safety movement. Risk and society, a rapidly growing area of historical research, interests sociologists, psychologists, and other social scientists. Americans have learned to tame risk in both the workplace and the home. Yet many of us still like amusement park rides that scare the devil out of us; they dare us to take risks.
What did it mean to be reasonable in the Age of Reason? Classical probabilists from Jakob Bernouli through Pierre Simon Laplace intended their theory as an answer to this question--as "nothing more at bottom than good sense reduced to a calculus, " in Laplace's words. In terms that can be easily grasped by nonmathematicians, Lorraine Daston demonstrates how this view profoundly shaped the internal development of probability theory and defined its applications.What did it mean to be reasonable in the Age of Reason? Classical probabilists from Jakob Bernouli through Pierre Simon Laplace intended their theory as an answer to this question--as "nothing more at bottom than good sense reduced to a calculus, " in Laplace's words. In terms that can be easily grasped by nonmathematicians, Lorraine Daston demonstrates how this view profoundly shaped the internal development of probability theory and defined its applications.
Harm reduction is a framework for helping drug and alcohol users who cannot or will not stop completely_the majority of users_reduce the harmful consequences of use. Harm reduction accepts that abstinence may be the best outcome for many but relaxes the emphasis on abstinence as the only acceptable goal and criterion of success. Instead, smaller incremental changes in the direction of reduced harmfulness of drug use are accepted. This book shows how these simple changes in emphasis and expectation have dramatic implications for improving the effectiveness of psychotherapy.